Electrochemical biosensors for the detection of microcystins: recent advances and perspectives

Audrey Sassolas, Akhtar Hayat, Jean-Louis Marty

Resumen


Microcystins (MC) are widespread cyanotoxins released by cyanobacteria in freshwaters. MC can cause severe health problems in exposed humans and animals. After ingestion, toxins can penetrate into the hepatocytes where they irreversibly inhibit the protein phosphatases type 2A (PP2A) and 1 (PP1) inducing external signs of poisoning such as vomiting and diarrhea. MCs are potent tumor promoters, causing disruption of liver structure and function, hemorrhaging into the liver and death by respiratory arrest.

The toxicity and ubiquity of MC make necessary the development of fast and reliable methods to detect it. Although several analytical techniques such as bioassay, ELISA test high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry have been widely used, electrochemical biosensors are good candidates for the water monitoring.

This review gives an overview of recent advances and new trends in electrochemical biosensors for the detection of MC. Biosensors have been classified according to the immobilized biorecognition element: enzymes, antibodies/antigen or DNA. The use of tailor-designed biomolecules such as aptamers is also reviewed. Recent advances in the field of nanomaterials merit special mention. The incorporation of nanomaterials provides highly sensitive sensing devices allowing the efficient detection of microcystins.


Palabras clave


microcystin, detection, eletrochemical biosensor

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